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HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS VOLS 1 & 2 - PROJECT GUTENBERG
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Title: History of the Philippine Islands Vols 1 and 2
Author: Antonio de Morga
Release Date: December, 2004 [EBook #7001] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on February 21, 2003]
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE ***
This eBook was produced by Jeroen Hellingman
MORGA'S PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
Of this work five hundred copies are issued separately from "The
Philippine Islands, 1493-1898," in fifty-five volumes.
HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
From their discovery by Magellan in 1521 to the beginning of the XVII
Century; with descriptions of Japan, China and adjacent countries, by
Dr. ANTONIO DE MORGA
Alcalde of Criminal Causes, in the Royal Audiencia of Nueva Espana, and Counsel for the Holy Office of the Inquisition
Completely translated into English, edited and annotated by
E. H. BLAIR and J. A. ROBERTSON With Facsimiles
[Separate publication from "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" in which series this appears as volumes 15 and 16.]
Cleveland, Ohio The Arthur H. Clark Company 1907
THE ARTUR H. CLARK COMPANY
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
CONTENTS OF VOLUME I [xv of series]
Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Dr. Antonio de Morga; Mexico, 1609
Appendix A: Expedition of Thomas Candish
Appendix B: Early years of the Dutch in the East Indies
View of city of Manila; photographic facsimile of engraving in Mallet's Description de l'univers (Paris, 1683), ii, p. 127, from copy in Library of Congress.
Title-page of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, by Dr. Antonio de Morga
(Mexico, 1609); photographic facsimile from copy in Lenox Library.
Map showing first landing-place of Legazpi in the Philippines; photographic facsimile of original MS. map in the pilots' log-book of the voyage, in Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla.
View of Dutch vessels stationed in bay of Albay; from T. de Bry's Peregrinationes, 1st ed. (Amsterdame, 1602), tome xvi, no. iv. "Voyage faict entovr de l'univers par Sr. Olivier dv Nort"—p. 36; photographic facsimile, from copy in Boston Public Library.
Battle with Oliver van Noordt, near Manila, December 14, 1600; ut supra, p. 44.
Sinking of the Spanish flagship in battle with van Noordt; ut supra, p. 45.
Capture of van Noordt's admiral's ship; ut supra, p. 46.
In this volume is presented the first installment of Dr. Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Events here described cover the years 1493-1603, and the history proper of the islands from 1565. Morga's work is important, as being written by a royal official and a keen observer and participator in affairs. Consequently he touches more on the practical everyday affairs of the islands, and in his narrative shows forth the policies of the government, its ideals, and its strengths and weaknesses. His book is written in the true historic spirit, and the various threads of the history of the islands are followed systematically. As being one of the first of published books regarding the Philippines, it has especial value. Political, social, and economic phases of life, both among the natives and their conquerors, are treated. The futility of the Spanish policy in making external expeditions, and its consequent neglect of internal affairs; the great Chinese question; the growth of trade; communication with Japan; missionary movements from the islands to surrounding countries; the jealous and envious opposition of the Portuguese; the dangers of sea-voyages: all these are portrayed vividly, yet soberly. Morga's position in the state allowed him access to many documents, and he seems to have been on general good terms with all classes, so that he readily gained a knowledge of facts. The character of Morga's work and his comprehensive treatment of the history, institutions, and products of the Philippines, render possible and desirable the copious annotations of this and the succeeding volume. These annotations are contributed in part by those of Lord Stanley's translation of Morga, and those of Rizal's reprint, while the Recopilacion de leyes de Indias furnishes a considerable number of laws.
The book is preceded by the usual licenses and authorizations, followed by the author's dedication and introduction. In the latter he declares his purpose in writing his book to be that "the deeds achieved by our Spaniards in the discovery, conquest, and conversion of the Filipinas Islands—as well as various fortunes that they have had from time to time in the great kingdoms and among the pagan peoples surrounding the islands" may be known. The first seven chapters of the book treat of "discoveries, conquests, and other events … until the death of Don Pedro de Acuna." The eighth chapter treats of the natives, government, conversion, and other details.
In rapid survey the author passes the line of demarcation of Alexander VI, and the voyages of Magalhaes and Elcano, Loaisa, Villalobos, and others, down to the expedition of Legazpi. The salient points of this expedition are briefly outlined, his peaceful reception by Tupas and the natives, but their later hostility, because the Spaniards "seized their provisions," their defeat, the Spaniards' first settlement in Sebu, and the despatching of the advice-boat to Nueva Espana to discover the return passage, and inform the viceroy of the success of the expedition. From Sebu the conquest and settlement is extended to other islands, and the Spanish capital is finally moved to Manila. Events come rapidly. The conquest proceeds "by force of arms or by the efforts of the religious who have sown the good seeds of the gospel." Land is allotted to the conquerors, and towns are gradually founded, and the amount of the natives' tribute is fixed.
At Legazpi's death Guido de Lavezaris assumes his responsibilities by virtue of a royal despatch among Legazpi's papers, and continues the latter's plans. The pirate Limahon is defeated after having slain Martin de Goiti. Trade with China is established "and as a consequence has been growing ever since." The two towns of Betis and Lubao allotted by Lavezaris to himself are taken from him later by order of his successor, Dr. Francisco de Sande, but are restored to him by express order of the king, together with the office of master-of-camp.
Succeeding Lavezaris in 1575, Dr. Francisco de Sande continues "the pacification of the islands …. especially that of the province of Camarines." The town of Nueva Caceres is founded, and Sande's partially effective campaign to Borneo, and its offshoot—that of Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa to Mindanao—undertaken. The "San Juanillo" is despatched to Nueva Espana, "but it was lost at sea and never heard of again." Sande is relieved of his governorship by Gonzalo Ronquillo de Pefialosa, and after his residencia returns "to Nueva Espana as auditor of Mexico."
Chapter III details the events of Gonzalo Ronquillo de Pefialosa's administration and the interim of government of Diego Ronquillo. Events, with the greater stability constantly given the islands, follow more quickly. Gonzalo de Penalosa, by an agreement with the king, is to take six hundred colonists—married and single—to the islands, in return for which he is to be governor for life. He establishes the town of Arevalo in Panay, builds the Chinese Parian, endeavors, although unsuccessfully, to discover a return passage to Nueva Espana, by the South Sea, and despatches "a ship to Peru with merchandise to trade for certain goods which he said that the Filipinas needed." He imposes the two per cent export duty on goods to Nueva Espana, and the three per cent duty on Chinese merchandise, and "although he was censured for having done this without his Majesty's orders" they "remained in force, and continued to be imposed thenceforward." The first expedition in aid of Tidore is sent for the conquest of the island of Ternate, but proves a failure. Cagayan is first pacified, and the town of Nueva Caceres founded. Gabriel de Rivera, after an expedition to Borneo, is sent to Spain to consult the best interests of the islands. Domingo de Salazar receives his appointment as bishop, and is accompanied to the islands by Antonio Sedeno and Alonso Sanchez, the first Jesuits in the islands. In 1583 Gonzalo de Penalosa dies, and is succeeded by his kinsman Diego Ronquillo. Shortly after occurs Manila's first disastrous fire, but the city is rebuilt, although with difficulty. In consequence of Rivera's trip to Spain, the royal Audiencia of Manila is established with Santiago de Vera as its president and governor of the islands.
In the fourth chapter are related the events of Santiago de Vera's administration, and the suppression of the Audiencia. Vera reaches the islands in 1584, whence shortly afterwards he despatches another expedition to the Malucos which also fails. The pacification continues, and the islands are freed from a rebellion and insurrection conspired between Manila and Pampanga chiefs. Fortifications are built and an artillery foundry established under the charge of natives. During this term Candish makes his memorable voyage, passing through some of the islands. Finally the Audiencia is suppressed, through the representations made by Alonso Sanchez, who is sent to Spain and Rome with authority to act for all classes of society. On his return he brings from Rome "many relics, bulls, and letters for the Filipinas." Through the influence of the Jesuit, Gomez Perez Dasmarinas receives appointment as governor of the islands; and with his salary increased to "ten thousand Castilian ducados" and with despatches for the suppression of the Audiencia, and the establishment of regular soldiers, he arrives at Manila in May, 1590.
Chapter V deals with the term of Gomez Perez Dasmarinas and the interims of Pedro de Rojas and Luis Perez Dasmarinas. The term of the new governor is characterized by his great energy and enthusiasm. The Manila wall and other fortifications, the building of galleys, the regulation of trade, various pacifications, the rebuilding of Manila, and the opening of negotiations with Japan, are all a part of his administration, and he is the inspirer of them all. The first note to the future expeditions to, and troubles with, Camboja and Siam is struck by an embassy from the first country in charge of Diego Belloso with offers of trade and friendship and requests for aid against Siam, the latter being at the time deferred. In accordance with his great desire to conquer Ternate, the governor fits out a great fleet in 1593, sending the advance vessels to the Pintados in care of his son. Shortly after, leaving the city in charge of Diego Ronquillo, although with too few troops for defense, Gomez Perez sets out to join his son, but is assassinated by his Chinese rowers, who mutiny and make off with the galley. After his death, the contests for his office begin, for the dead governor had assured various people that they would be appointed in case of his death. Especially had he done this with Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, a wealthy man of the Pintados, to whom he "had shown an appointment drawn in his favor." In Manila, Pedro de Rojas, lieutenant-assessor, is chosen governor ad interim, but after forty days Luis Perez Dasmarinas takes the office by virtue of an appointment regularly drawn in his favor. The return of the troops to Manila proves an efficacious relief from fears of a Chinese invasion. The vessels sent to Nueva Espana in 1593 fail to make the voyage because of stormy weather, but the governor's death is learned in Spain by way of India. The troubles between the bishop and governor culminate somewhat before the latter's death, in the departure of the former for Spain, as a result of which an archbishopric with suffragan bishops is established in the islands, and the Audiencia is reestablished. The office of lieutenant-assessor is given more weight and Morga is sent out to fill it in 1595 under its changed title of lieutenant-governor. In the administration of Luis Perez Dasmarinas affairs begin actively with Camboja through the expedition despatched under Juan Xuarez Gallinato, and Blas Ruiz de Hernan Gonzalez and Diego Belloso. The governor, completely under the influence of the Dominicans, although against the advice of the "majority of people in the city" sends a fleet to Camboja. Gallinato fails to reach that country until after Blas Ruiz and Belloso have quarreled with the Chinese there, killed the usurping Cambodian king, Anacaparan, and thrown the country into confusion. Much to their displeasure Gallinato refuses to continue the conquest, chides the others harshly, and departs for Manila by way of Cochinchina. At Cochinchina Blas Ruiz and Belloso go to the kingdom of Lao to find the legitimate king of Camboja, Prauncar. On their arrival they find that he has died, but partly through their efforts and those of two Malays, the king's younger son, who still survives, is placed on the throne. Gallinato experiences difficulty in Cochinchina, where he endeavors to regain the standard and various other articles from the galley of Gomez Perez that had been stolen by the Chinese, but finally returns safely to Manila. Meanwhile Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa agrees to subdue Mindanao at his own expense, in return for which he is to have its governorship for two generations. In pursuance of this he fits out a large expedition, but shortly after reaching the island is killed in a fight and ambush, whereupon his first commanding officer Juan de la Xara schemes to continue the expedition, and establishes his men in a settlement near Tampacan, called Murcia.
The administration of Governor Francisco Tello forms the subject-matter of chapter VI. At his arrival in 1596, news is received in the island of the appointment of Fray Ignacio de Santibanez as archbishop, and of two appointments for bishops. News of the death of Estevan Rodriguez is brought to Manila, and the machinations of Juan de la Xara to carry on the expedition independently of Manila learned. His death shortly after arrest, while on his way to Oton to push his suit with Rodriguez's widow, frustrates his plans. Juan Ronquillo is sent to Mindanao and takes over the command there, but being discouraged by the outlook advises an evacuation of the river of Mindanao and the fortifying of La Caldera, on the Mindanao coast. However he gains a complete victory over the combined forces of Mindanaos and Ternatans, which causes him to send another despatch to Tello. But the latter's reply to the first despatch having been received, in accordance with its orders he burns his fort, and after establishing a garrison at La Caldera, returns to Manila with the rest of his command. There he is arrested for not awaiting Tello's second despatch, but is liberated on producing a letter ordering him in any event to return to Manila. Gallinato, on his return from Cochinchina is accused by his own men of not following up the victory at Camboja, for had he done so, "all that had been hoped in that kingdom would have been attained." An incipient rebellion in Cagayan is checked by the murder of its leader by his own countrymen "who had offered to do it for a reward." In the year 1596, the remnants of Alvaro de Mendana de Neira's expedition that had set out from Peru to rediscover the Solomon Islands reaches the Philippines after great sufferings from famine and disease, and after the death of many men, among them the commander himself. The voyage is related in detail in a letter from the chief pilot, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to Morga; it is full of stirring adventure, and of keen and appreciative observation. One of the vessels, the "San Geronymo" despatched to Nueva Espana in 1596, is forced to put in at a Japanese port because of storms. There they receive ill-treatment, and the efforts of the Franciscan missionaries in Japan in their behalf lead to the edict sentencing them to death, in accordance with which six Franciscans, three Jesuits, and seventeen native helpers are crucified in 1597. Taicosama's wrath, intensified by the accusation that the Spaniards conquered kingdoms "by first sending their religious to the kingdom" and by entering afterward "with their arms," is satisfied by the crucifixion of the religious and their assistants, and the men of the "San Geronymo" are allowed to return to Manila. The religious write a letter of farewell to Dr. Morga, in which they inform him that Japan intends to attack the Philippines. Luis Navarrete Fajardo is sent to Japan to demand satisfaction, but accomplishes little. Faranda Quiemon, one of Taicosama's vassals, a man of obscure birth, obtaining permission to make an expedition of conquest, sets about his preparations, but owing to lack of resources and initiative fails to complete them. Meanwhile great caution is exercised in Manila, and the Japanese residing there are sent back to Japan, while those coming on trading vessels are well treated but gotten rid of as soon as possible. Cambodian affairs are again set on foot, although against the advice of some, through the instrumentality of Father Alonso Ximenez, a Dominican who had accompanied Gallinato on the former expedition, but who had been left behind at Cochinchina through his own disobedience of orders. Affairs in Mindanao and Jolo assume a threatening aspect. One Juan Pacho, commander of La Caldera, is killed in an incursion into Jolo with twenty of his men, and a new commander of La Caldera is appointed until a punitive expedition can be undertaken. In 1598 the archbishop arrives, and the Manila Audiencia is reestablished by royal order, and the seal received with great pomp and ceremony. A letter received that same year by Morga from Blas Ruiz details events in Camboja since he and Belloso went there with Gallinato's expedition. Blas Ruiz seeks to excuse their actions in Camboja and holds out the hope of Spanish conquest and influence on the mainland, and asks help from the islands. As a consequence of this letter, Luis Perez Dasmarinas secures permission to attempt an expedition to the mainland at his own expense to aid the king of Camboja and then to seize the kingdom of Champan, whose king was a constant menace to all navigators throughout that region. Negotiations with China and the granting of an open port to Spaniards called El Pinal, are opened and secured through the efforts of Juan de Zamudio who is sent to China for saltpeter and metals, although with great and vindictive opposition from the Portuguese, who fear the loss of their own trade at Macao. At El Pinal the survivors of two of Luis Perez's three ships meet with Juan de Zamudio, after suffering great storms, hardships, and wrecks. The same favor is extended him by the Chinese as to Zamudio, but the Portuguese show their hostility to him also, imprisoning the men sent by him to Macao to ask for help, and even attempting force against him. Both Zamudio and a messenger from Luis Perez carry news of the latter's disaster to Manila, whereupon a ship and supplies are sent him with orders to return to Manila. Hernando de los Rios Coronel, sent to Canton by Luis Perez to negotiate with the Chinese, writes from that city to Dr. Morga concerning China and the possibility, desirability, and advantages of the Chinese trade in China instead of Manila, and the opposition of the Portuguese. China he describes as a country "full of rivers and towns, and without a palmo of ground left lying idle." Meanwhile the third vessel of Luis Perez's fleet, commanded by Luis Ortiz, reaches Camboja, where he and his companions join the Spanish, Portuguese, and Japanese already there. This small force, which is eyed askance by the Malay leaders and others envious of, and hostile to them on account of their prowess and their influence with the weak king, is further increased by Captain Juan de Mendoza Gamboa and Fray Juan Maldonado, a learned Dominican, and their men. The former, having obtained permission to go on a trading expedition to Siam, for which he is given letters of embassy, is also entrusted to convey certain supplies to Don Luis at Camboja, where he fails to find him. Maldonado is sent by his order as a companion to Don Luis. This addition to their forces is welcomed by the Spaniards in Camboja, and they refuse to let them depart until hearing definite news of Luis Perez. The arrival of a contingent of Japanese, mestizos, and one Spaniard, who had left Japan on a piratical expedition, still further increases the force in Camboja. The leaders Blas Ruiz, Belloso, and Maldonado treat with the king on their own account, but not so satisfactorily as they wish. Conflicts and quarrels arising between their forces and the Malays, the latter finally overpower and kill the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Japanese, except several who remain in the country and Mendoza, Maldonado and a few men who escape in the former's vessel. In Camboja confusion and anarchy again reign and the king is bullied and finally killed by the Malays. The Joloans and Mindanaos are emboldened by the final abandonment and dismantling of the fort at La Caldera—which is decided upon by the governor against the opinion of the Audiencia—and, joined in self-defense by the peaceful natives of Mindanao, make an incursion against Spaniards and natives in the Pintados in 1599, in which they take immense booty and many captives. The next year they return with a larger force, but are defeated by the alcalde-mayor of Arevalo, whereupon they resolve to be revenged. In Japan the death of Taicosama encourages Geronimo de Jesus, a Franciscan who has escaped crucifixion, to open negotiations with his successor Daifusama. The latter, desiring trade for his own northern province of Quanto, requests the governor of Manila, through the religious, for commerce, and men to build ships for the Nueva Espana trade which he wishes to open. He does not negotiate concerning religion, for "the profit and benefit to be derived from friendship and commerce with the Spaniards was more to the taste of Daifusama than what he had heard concerning their religion." However, the religious writes that freedom is given to evangelize throughout Japan, although the only concession given is that the religious could establish a house at their trading station. In October of 1600 news reaches Manila of the coming and depredations of Oliver van Noordt's two vessels. The description of the preparations, made by Morga, the instructions given him by the governor, his instructions to Juan de Alcega, and the fight and its consequences follow. In the same year of 1600 the vessels "Santa Margarita" and "San Geronymo" are both unable to reach Nueva Espana, and are wrecked—the latter near Catanduanes, and the former in the Ladrones, where it is rifled by the natives and the men surviving distributed through the different villages. In 1600 the "Santo Tomas" on its way to the islands puts in at the Ladrones, but the commander, fearing storms, refuses to wait for the Spanish prisoners of the "Santa Margarita," although petitioned to do so by the religious and others. Accordingly a Franciscan, Juan Pobre, full of pity for the unfortunate men, casts in his lot with them and voluntarily remains behind. The "San Felipe" is wrecked eighty leguas from Manila, and its cargo taken overland to that city. Mindanao and Jolo affairs are meanwhile given into command of Gallinato, and although he is partially successful, the rains, hunger, and disease work for the natives, and finally in May of 1602, Gallinato sends to Manila for instructions. Juan de Mendoza and Fray Juan Maldonado, after leaving Camboja proceed on their journey to Siam, but are received there coldly by the king, and their trading is unsatisfactory. Fearing violence they depart one night without notifying the Siamese, taking with them certain Portuguese held in Siam as partial prisoners, but are pursued by the Siamese who molest them until in the open sea. From wounds received during the week's continual conflict both Mendoza and Maldonado die, the latter first writing to his Order and advising them "on their consciences not to again become instruments of a return to Camboja." Troubles in Maluco between the Dutch and natives on the one side and the Portuguese and Spanish on the other, render it necessary to send aid several times from Manila. In March of 1601, a letter is written by the king of Tidore to Morga requesting aid against Ternate and the Dutch, in response to which supplies and reenforcements are sent in 1602.
The seventh chapter deals with events during the period of Pedro de Acuna's administration. With his arrival in May of 1602, new life and energy are infused in public affairs. The new governor first concerns himself with home affairs. He constructs galleys but has to postpone an intended visit to Pintados, in order to attend to Japan and Jolo, and despatch the vessels to Nueva Espana. It is determined to open commerce with Quanto, but to defer the matter of sending workmen to Japan to show the Japanese how to construct ships, as that will be detrimental. Religious of the various orders go to Japan, but are received less warmly than Geronymo de Jesus's letter leads them to expect. The latter pressed by Daifusama for the performance of his promises finally asks permission to go to Manila to advocate them in person, whence he brings back assurance of trade with Quanto. The vessel despatched there is forced to put in at another port, but is allowed to trade there and to return. Two vessels despatched to Nueva Espana in 1602 are forced to return, putting in on the way—the first at the Ladrones and the other at Japan. The first brings back most of the men wrecked at the Ladrones. The second after rough treatment in Japan finally escapes. As a result of an embassy sent to Daifusama from this vessel chapas or writs of safety are provided to the Spaniards so that any vessel putting into Japanese ports will be well treated in the future. The reenforcements sent to Gallinato at Jolo serve only to enable him to break camp and return to Manila. While Acuna is on his way to Pintados to inspect those islands, a raiding expedition of Moros goes as far as Luzon and Mindoro, committing many depredations, thus compelling the governor to return, who narrowly escapes capture. A punitive expedition of Spaniards and Indians sent in pursuit of the Moros inflicts but slight damage. Shortly before this a fleet prepared at Goa for the chastisement of the Malucos sets out under Andrea Furtado de Mendoza, but is separated by storms. Some of the vessels with the commander reach Amboina, but in so crippled and destitute a condition that they are forced to ask help from Manila. Acuna, although arranging independently for an expedition to Maluco, sends a force there under Gallinato in 1603 to aid the Portuguese. Early in that year the prelude to the Chinese troubles of that same year is given by the coming of the Chinese mandarins to see the island of gold, which causes many, among them the archbishop and some religious, to counsel watchfulness. In 1603 occurs the second disastrous fire in Manila, with a loss of over one million pesos.
The victorious Malays in Camboja are finally driven out by a combination of patriotic mandarins, and make the brother of their old king sovereign, whereupon relations between Camboja and the Philippines are again established by sending there a number of religious. In May of 1603 two ships with reenforcements arrive at Manila, bringing certain ecclesiastical news. The aid rendered Furtado de Mendoza by Gallinato does not prove sufficient to subdue the Ternatans, and Gallinato returns to Manila. The present installment of Morga ends with the courteous letter written to Acuna by Furtado de Mendoza, in which he renders praise to Gallinato and his men. The remainder of the book will appear in the succeeding volume.
The present volume ends with two appendices: the first an abstract of Thomas Candish's circumnavigation; the second an abstract of Dutch expeditions to the East Indies.
SUCESOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS
By Dr. Antonio de Morga. Mexico: at the shop of Geronymo Baili, in the year 1609; printed by Cornelio Adriano Cesar.
SOURCE: The translation is made from the Harvard copy of the original printed work.
TRANSLATION: This is made by Alfonso de Salvio, Norman F. Hall, and James Alexander Robertson.
SVCESOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS
A DON CRISTOVAL GOMEZ DE
Sandoual y Rojas, Duque de Cea.
POR EL DOCTOR ANTONIO DE MORGA,
Alcaldo del Crimen, de la real Audiencia de la Nueua Espana, Consultor del santo Oficio de la Inquisicion.
En casa de Geronymo Balli. Ano 1609.
Por Cornelio Adriano Cesar
---TO BE CONTINUED---
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